Features March 2019 Issue

Cold Water Survival

The first few seconds can be the most dangerous.

When we read about a sailor lost overboard in the storm, we think about PFDs and personal locator beacons, and accept the sea is unforgiving. When we read of novice boaters drowning in a local lake, weíre sad, but say that will not happen us because we wear PFDs. But when we read of a PFD-equipped sailor falling overboard and dying within minutes itís a real eye-opener.

Drew Frye
PS tech editor Drew Frye enjoys some light reading during drysuit testing.

Jon Santarelli fell overboard from a fully crewed TP 52 (fast ocean racing yacht) just a few miles the start of the 2018 Chicago Mackinac race. According to witnesses, he slid under the lifeline at the back of the cockpit, entering the water apparently uninjured, and then disappeared almost immediately.

His automatic inflatable PFD failed to deploy, but that alone does not explain why an experienced sailor and fit triathlon swimmer couldnít keep his head above water for more than seconds.

The danger is cold water shock. With the water temperature in the low 50s, true hypothermia would have taken more than 30 minutes. The inability to swim wouldnít have overtaken him for at least 20 minutes. However, 50 degrees is well below the accepted threshold of shock. Most likely, when the icy water slammed into his face it caused an involuntary gasp. Itís hard to recover from inhaling water, even for a strong swimmer.

Originally known as sudden disappearance syndrome, cold water shock has been known since the 1970s. Different from true hypothermia, which results from the body core temperature dropping over a period of 20 minutes to hours, cold water shock is immediate. Being cast headfirst into icy water is one of most severe shocks a human can face, with deadly effects. It is estimated that 20 percent of victims die within 2 minutes.

Physical effects

The instantaneous reflex is a violent gasp, totally unlike the one scary movies strive to cause. This results in a massive in rush of air, which can be fatal if you are underwater. Unlike the controlled plunges of the local polar bear club, where participants walk in via a beach and are attended by rescue swimmers in dry suits, MOB sailors plunge in head first, the result of tripping over the lifeline. Even with an automatic vest, your head will plunge 6 feet underwater before popping to the surface. If the first blast of inhaled water doesnít drown you, youíll arrive on the surface gasping and unable to swim and swallowing more. Drowning will typically occur in less than a minute. The initial gasp is followed by several minutes of hyperventilation, making any physical effort nearly impossible. Consequences include the inability to hold your breath or think clearly.

Instantaneous and massive increases in heart rate and blood pressure can cause heart failure in otherwise healthy individuals. Clear thought is impossible. Panic is likely, only serving to increase problems with breathing control and heart rate.

These reactions may appear to an observer as nothing more than panic. Flailing, spastic breathing, muddled thinking, and a racing heart fit the pattern. But victims include experienced sailors and strong swimmers, like Jon Santarelli, who are not at all prone to panic. Had he fallen overboard in warm water and reasonable weather, his first concern might have been embarrassment over screwing up the race, and later whether the boat would be back in the next half or hour so. It wouldnít have felt life threatening.

If you survive the first critical seconds, then come the more traditional challenges of cold water exposure. Cold incapacitation and swimming failure begins in 5-20 minutes, the result of failed muscle control. In the absence of a PFD, drowning follows. Death from true hypothermia (cold core) takes considerably longer, at least 30 minutes in very cold water up to a few hours in cool water.

How do you keep this from happening to you? First, donít fall in. The first line of defense is careful movement and the use of harness and tether systems as described in PS October 2018. If sailing a smaller boat, prone to capsize or swamping, dress for full water immersion. In cool water either a thin wetsuit or dry suit is effective. Once the water temperature drops below about 50F, only a dry suit is suitable. (See PS November 2018 and March 2009.)

If performing high risk activities on larger boats (hiking out, working on the bow, or leaning outboard) a dry suit is the smart option. It is our favorite foul weather gear for stormy conditions in cool weather; more agile than heavy foul weather gear and nary a drop of water will go down your neck. Small wonder is increased in popularity with offshore racers and sailors.

Unfortunately, once the air temperature gets above about 55F, dry suits get steamy, tempting the wearer to open the zipper and defeating the whole purpose. As the water temperature rises into the 50s, we like paddling jackets and dinghy smocks, with snug fitting wrist, neck, and waist seals. Water will sneak in pretty quickly, but shock is reduced and the seals reduce the exchange of cold water. The wearer is also more mobile than in conventional foul weather gear.

Soft shells may also have possibilities. Once our tester found himself in 35F water, with ice around the edges. He was dressed not in foul weather gear or dry suit, but in Wind Blocker fleece tops and bottoms. The saving factors were that the wrist, waist, ankle, and neck closures were all tightly secured; not all soft shells have effective closures. Although very cold, it was more survivable than ordinary foul weather gear.


The last 12 months have been hard on ocean racers. It is more than coincidence cool or cold water was a common factor. In the UK, coldwater shock is considered to be the root cause of most drowning, including non-boating accidents.

We like certain features of manual inflating PFDs; they donít go off inadvertently and climbing back aboard is easier. But cold water is different. Because of the high probability the wearer will be incapable of action for a minute or more, auto-inflation is the way to go.

We would like to see the makers of foul weather gear take a long hard look at what can be done to improve cold water shock resistance. Conventional jackets and soft shells could be fitted with effective internal neck seals. Wrist and waist seals could be upgraded.

We would like to see race committees post cold water warnings. It is common to require PFDs be worn above a certain wind speed. The race committee should at least recommend that protective gear such as a wet suit or drysuit be worn if the water temperature is below about 55 F. Our level of caution around the rail varies with the risk we perceive, and that level of caution goes way up when the water temperatures go down.

Most importantly, sailors need understand what being thrown face first into cold water feels like and how their body will respond to it. A diehard for traditional foul weather gear? Donít fall off the boat in cold water, and donít expect to survive more than a few minutes if you do. Itís tough out there.

Comments (5)

Re. Santarelli: As often happens, the initial eye witness reports were incorrect in many details, including water temperature. The final report paints a very different story about the difficulties of recovering a COB in rough conditions. Stay on board!

Posted by: Drew Frye | March 19, 2019 3:19 PM    Report this comment

This is a meaningful article but it misstates what happens in the tragic accident involving Jon Santarelli. The crew believe he may have been injured by a collision with a stanchion in the process of falling overboard. More importantly, he stayed afloat for at least 10 minutes while the crew made three attempts to recover him. They were unable to stop the boat the first time, the second time a wave lifted the boat over him, and the third time he slipped underwater just as they were reaching for him. The point of the article is relevant in that he was completely incapable of assisting in his own rescue even though he was an excellent swimmer (he had completed a half-Ironman in the past, which involves a 1.2 mile open water swim). The other important point is that this was an experienced racing crew that had just completed a COB drill on a hat in flat water before the race began. Trying to rescue a COB in big waves and high winds (when a real COB is likely to occur) is much more difficult and requires different techniques. The report suggests that the outcome may have been different if the crew had deployed the boat's Lifesling, although it is unclear if Mr. Santarelli could have used the Lifesling to keep him self afloat.

Posted by: Claygr | March 17, 2019 10:07 AM    Report this comment

While your article about drowning is informative, you were incorrect regarding the Lake Michigan "Mac race"water temperature as it was in the low 70s not in the 50s.

Posted by: charlesson | March 17, 2019 9:59 AM    Report this comment

We have not tested anti-exposure suits in the water, although we have worn them. There is a US coast Guard Standard as well as a CE standard, and they are far more popular in Northern Europe (where they are often called "Fladen suits," after the largest manufacturer) than they are here. They have saved the lives of many fishermen and ship pilots.

The numbers we have seen suggest they are far better than wearing foul weather gear, but not near the level of protection offered by immersion suits or dry suits. A compromise that makes sense for many occupations. They are also far more economical and durable, an important consideration for commercial applications. Some North Sea sailors favor them.

Posted by: Drew Frye | March 1, 2019 5:48 PM    Report this comment

I think your article on Cold Water Survival is an important contribution to safe sailing. I have falling through ice on three occasions. All three were near death experiences. I sail May through October on Lake Erie. I used to fish from powerboats in October through April on Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, and on the lower Niagara River. I have sailed on the Atlantic in the Fall and the Texas Gulf Coast in the Fall and Winter.

One item of my cold water gear that gives me some level safety is my Mustang Anti-Exposure Suit. In your article no mention is made of this type of gear. What do you feel is the value of this gear in cold water?

Posted by: mark2 | February 27, 2019 9:59 PM    Report this comment

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